Рассмотрим как можно принудительно сменить прошивку на роутере netgear wnr612v2 от Дом.ру
Всем у кого возникла проблема с перепрошивкой роутера Netgear WNR612v2 предназначеного для работы с провайдером Дом.Ру и прочими, рекомендуем прочитать решение проблемы на нашей странице Мастерской.
Роутер не плохой. но штатными средствами выбить прошивку из него не возможно, роутер не желает видить новую прошивочку.
Пост-коды BIOS материнских плат
   Материнская плата - сложное электронное устройство. Каждое такое устройство имеет множество функций тестирования перед запуском. Материнская плата, перед тем, как запуститься и компьютер заработает, производит всевозможные тесты, которые выдают ключевые отметки по их прохождению (пост - коды). Используя специальные платы считывания и отображения этих кодов, так называемых пост-карт, можно поставить диагноз неисправности.
И так ниже приводим распечатку пост - кодов разных видов BIOS:

00 Passes control to OS Loader (typically INT19h).
03 Disable NMI, Parity, video for EGA, and DMA controllers. Initialize BIOS, POST, Runtime data area. Also initialize BIOS modules on POST entry and GPNV area.
04 Check CMOS diagnostic byte to determine if battery power is OK and CMOS checksum is OK. Verify CMOS checksum manually by reading storage area.
05 Initializes the interrupt controlling hardware (generally PIC) and interrupt vector table.
06 Do R/W test to CH-2 count reg. Initialize CH-0 as system timer. Install the POSTINT1Ch handler. Enable IRQ-0 in PIC for system timer interrupt.
08 Initializes the CPU. The BAT test is being done on KBC. Program the keyboard controller command byte is being done after Auto detection of KB/MS using AMI KB-5.
0A Initializes the 8042 compatible Key Board Controller.
0B Detects the presence of PS/2 mouse.
0C Detects the presence of Keyboard in KBC port.
0E Testing and initialization of different Input Devices. Also, update the Kernel Variables. Traps the INT09h vector, so that the POST INT09h handler gets control for IRQ1.
13 Early POST initialization of chipset registers.
24 Uncompress and initialize any platform specific BIOS modules.
30 Initialize System Management Interrupt.
2A Initializes different devices through DIM. See DIM Code Checkpoints section of document for more information.
2C Initializes different devices. Detects and initializes the video adapter installed in the system that have optional ROMs.
2E Initializes all the output devices.
31 Allocate memory for ADM module and uncompress it. Give control to ADM module for initialization. Initialize language and font modules for ADM. Activate ADM module.
33 Initializes the silent boot module. Set the window for displaying text information.
37 Displaying sign-on message, CPU information, setup key message, and any OEM specific information.
38 Initializes different devices through DIM. See DIM Code Checkpoints section of document for more information.
39 Initializes DMAC-1 & DMAC-2.
3A Initialize RTC date/time.
3B Test for total memory installed in the system. Also, Check for DEL or ESC keys to limit memory test. Display total memory in the system.
3C Mid POST initialization of chipset registers.
40 Detect different devices (Parallel ports, serial ports, and coprocessor in CPU, … etc.) successfully installed in the system and update the BDA, EBDA…etc.
50 Programming the memory hole or any kind of implementation that needs an adjustment in system RAM size if needed.
52 Updates CMOS memory size from memory found in memory test. Allocates memory for Extended BIOS Data Area from base memory.
60 Initializes NUM-LOCK status and programs the KBD typematic rate.
75 Initialize Int-13 and prepare for IPL detection.
78 Initializes IPL devices controlled by BIOS and option ROMs.
7A Initializes remaining option ROMs.
7C Generate and write contents of ESCD in NVRam.
84 Log errors encountered during POST.
85 Display errors to the user and gets the user response for error.
87 Execute BIOS setup if needed / requested.
8C Late POST initialization of chipset registers.
8D Build ACPI tables (if ACPI is supported).
8E Program the peripheral parameters. Enable/Disable NMI as selected.
90 Late POST initialization of system management interrupt.
A0 Check boot password if installed.
A1 Clean-up work needed before booting to OS.
A2 Takes care of runtime image preparation for different BIOS modules. Fill the free area in F000h segment with 0FFh. Initializes the Microsoft IRQ Routing Table.
A4 Initialize runtime language module.
A7 Displays the system configuration screen if enabled. Initialize the CPU’s before boot, which includes the programming of the MTRR’s.
A8 Prepare CPU for OS boot including final MTRR values.
A9 Wait for user input at config display if needed.
AA Uninstall POST INT1Ch vector and INT09h vector. Deinitializes the ADM module.
AB Prepare BBS for Int 19 boot.
AC End of POST initialization of chipset registers.
B1 Save system context for ACPI.
C0 Early CPU Init Start -- Disable Cache - Init Local APIC.
C1 Set up boot strap proccessor Information.
C2 Set up boot strap proccessor for POST.
C5 Enumerate and set up application proccessors.
C6 Re-enable cache for boot strap proccessor.
C7 Early CPU Init Exit.
D0 Go to flat mode with 4GB limit and GA20 enabled. Verify the bootblock checksum.
D1 Perform keyboard controller BAT test. Check if waking up from power management suspend state. Save power-on CPUID value in scratch CMOS.
D2 Disable CACHE before memory detection. Execute full memory sizing module. Verify that flat mode is enabled.
D3 If memory sizing module not executed, start memory refresh and do memory sizing in Bootblock code. Do additional chipset initialization.
D4 Test base 512KB memory. Adjust policies and cache first 8MB. Set stack.
D5 Bootblock code is copied from ROM to lower system memory and control is given to it. BIOS now executes out of RAM.
D6 Both key sequence and OEM specific method is checked to determine if BIOS recovery is forced. Main BIOS checksum is tested.
D7 Restore CPUID value back into register. The Bootblock-Runtime interface module is moved to system memory and control is given to it.
D8 The Runtime module is uncompressed into memory. CPUID information is stored in memory.
D9 Store the Uncompressed pointer for future use in PMM. Copying Main BIOS into memory. Leaves all RAM below 1MB Read-Write.
DA Restore CPUID value back into register. Give control to BIOS POST (ExecutePOSTKernel). See POST Code Checkpoints section of document for more information.
E0 Initialize the floppy controller in the super I/O. Some interrupt vectors are initialized. DMA controller is initialized.
E9 Set up floppy controller and data. Attempt to read from floppy.
EA Enable ATAPI hardware. Attempt to read from ARMD and ATAPI CDROM. Determine information about root directory of recovery media.
EB Disable ATAPI hardware. Jump back to checkpoint E9.
EF Read error occurred on media. Jump back to checkpoint EB.
F0 Search for pre-defined recovery file name in root directory.
F1 Recovery file not found.
F2 Start reading FAT table and analyze FAT to find the clusters occupied by the recovery file.
F3 Start reading the recovery file cluster by cluster.
F5 Disable L1 cache.
FA Check the validity of the recovery file configuration to the current configuration of the flash part.
FB Make flash write enabled through chipset and OEM specific method. Detect proper flash part. Verify that the found flash part size equals the recovery file size.
F4 The recovery file size does not equal the found flash part size.
FC Erase the flash part. FD Program the flash part.
FF The flash has been updated successfully. Make flash write disabled. Disable ATAPI hardware. Restore CPUID value back into register. Give control to F000 ROM at F000:FFF0h.
00 Passes control to OS Loader (typically INT19h).
AwardBIOS Version 4.51PG
01 Processor Test 1. Processor Status (1FLAGS) Verification. Tests the following processor status flags: carry, zero, sign, overflow, The BIOS sets each flag, verifies they are set, then turns each flag off and verifies it is off.
02 Processor Test 2. Read/Write/Verify all CPU registers except SS, SP, and BP with data pattern FF and 00.
03 Initialize Chips. Disable NMI, PIE, AIE, UEI, SQWV, Disable video, parity checking, DMA, Reset math coprocessor, Clear all page registers, CMOS shutdown byte, Initialize timer 0, 1, and 2, including set EISA timer to a known state, Initialize DMA controllers 0 and 1, Initialize interrupt controllers 0 and 1, Initialize EISA extended registers.
04 Test Memory Refresh Toggle. RAM must be periodically refreshed to keep the memory from decaying. This function ensures that the memory refresh function is working properly.
05 Blank video Initialize keyboard. Keyboard controller initialization.
06 Reserved.
07 Test CMOS Interface and Battery Status. Verifies CMOS is working correctly, detects bad battery.
08 Setup low memory. Early chip set initialization, Memory presence test, OEM chip set routines, Clear low 64K of memory, Test first 64K memory.
09 Early Cache Initialization. Cyrix CPU initialization, Cache initialization.
0A Setup Interrupt Vector Table. Initialize first 120 interrupt vectors with SPURIOUS_INT_HDLR and initialize, INT 00h-1Fh according to INT_TBL.
0B Test CMOS Checksum. RAM Test CMOS RAM Checksum, if bad, or insert key pressed, load defaults.
0C Initialize keyboard. Detect type of keyboard controller (optional), Set NUM_LOCK status.
0D Initialize Video Interface. Detect CPU clock. Read CMOS location 14h to find out type of video in use. Detect and Initialize Video Adapter.
0E Test Video Memory. Test video memory, write sign-on message to screen. Setup shadow RAM - Enable shadow according to Setup.
0F Test DMA Controller. BIOS checksum test. Keyboard detect and initialization.
10 Test DMA Controller 1.
11 Test DMA Page Registers. Test DMA Page Registers.
12 Reserved.
13 Reserved.
14 Test Timer Counter 2. Test 8254 Timer 0 Counter 2.
15 Test 8259-1 Mask Bits. Verify 8259 Channel 1 masked interrupts by alternately turning off and on the interrupt lines.
16 Test 8259-2 Mask Bits. Verify 8259 Channel 2 masked interrupts by alternately turning off and on the interrupt lines.
17 Test Stuck 8259's Interrupt Bits. Turn off interrupts then verify no interrupt mask register is on.
18 Test 8259 Interrupt Functionality. Force an interrupt and verify the interrupt occurred.
19 Test Stuck NMI Bits (Parity/IO Check). Verify NMI can be cleared.
1A Display CPU clock.
1B Reserved.
1E Reserved.
1F Set EISA Mode. If EISA non-volatile memory checksum is good, execute EISA initialization. If not, execute ISA tests an clear EISA mode flag. Test EISA Configuration Memory Integrity (checksum & communication interface).
20 Enable Slot 0. Initialize slot 0 (System Board).
21 Enable Slots. Initialize slots 1.
22 Enable Slots. Initialize slots 2.
23 Enable Slots. Initialize slots 3.
24 Enable Slots. Initialize slots 4.
25 Enable Slots. Initialize slots 5.
26 Enable Slots. Initialize slots 6.
27 Enable Slots. Initialize slots 7.
28 Enable Slots. Initialize slots 8.
29 Enable Slots. Initialize slots 9.
2A Enable Slots. Initialize slots 10.
2B Enable Slots. Initialize slots 11.
2C Enable Slots. Initialize slots 12.
2D Enable Slots. Initialize slots 13.
2E Enable Slots. Initialize slots 14.
2F Enable Slots. Initialize slots 15.
30 Size Base and Extended Memory. Size base memory from 256K to 640K and extended memory above 1MB.
31 Test Base and Extended Memory. Test base memory from 256K to 640K and extended memory above 1MB using various patterns. NOTE: This test is skipped in EISA mode and can be skipped with ESC key in ISA mode.
32 Test EISA Extended Memory. If EISA Mode flag is set then test EISA memory found in slots initialization. NOTE: This test is skipped in ISA mode and can be skipped with ESC key in EISA mode.
33 Reserved.
34 Reserved.
35 Reserved.
36 Reserved.
37 Reserved.
38 Reserved.
39 Reserved.
3A Reserved.
3B Reserved.
3C Setup Enabled.
3D Initialize & Install Mouse. Detect if mouse is present, initialize mouse, install interrupt vectors.
3E Setup Cache Controller. Initialize cache controller.
3F Reserved.
40 Display virus protect disable or enable.
41 Initialize Floppy Drive & Controller. Initialize floppy disk drive controller and any drives.
42 Initialize Hard Drive & Controller. initialize hard drive controller and any drives.
43 Detect & Initialize Serial/Parallel Ports. Initialize any serial and parallel ports (also game port).
44 Reserved.
45 Detect & Initialize Math Coprocessor. Initialize math coprocessor.
46 Reserved.
47 Reserved.
48 Reserved.
49 Reserved.
4A Reserved.
4B Reserved.
4C Reserved.
4D Reserved.
4E Manufacturing POST Loop or Display Messages. Reboot if Manufacturing POST Loop pin is set. Otherwise display any messages (i.e., any non-fatal errors that were detected during POST) and enter Setup.
4F Security Check. Ask password security (optional).
50 Write CMOS. Write all CMOS values back to RAM and clear screen.
51 Pre-boot Enable. Enable parity checker Enable NMI, Enable cache before boot.
52 Initialize Option ROMs. Initialize any option ROMs present from C8000h to EFFFFh. NOTE: When FSCAN option is enabled, ROMs initialize from C8000h to F7FFFh.
53 Initialize Time Value. Initialize time value in 40h: BIOS area.
60 Setup Virus Protect. Setup virus protect according to Setup.
61 Set Boot Speed. Set system speed for boot.
62 Setup NumLock. Setup NumLock status according to Setup.
63 Boot Attempt. Set low stack Boot via INT 19h.
C0 Turn Off Chipset Cache. OEM Specific-Cache control.
C1 Memory presence test. OEM Specific-Test to size on-board memory.
C5 Early Shadow. OEM Specific-Early Shadow enable for fast boot.
C6 Cache presence test. External cache size detection.
B0 Spurious. If interrupt occurs in protected mode.
B1 Unclaimed NMI. If unmasked NMI occurs, display Press F1 to disable NMI, F2 reboot.
BE Chipset Default Initialization. Program chipset registers with power on BIOS defaults.
BF Chipset Initialization. Program chipset registers with Setup values.
E1 Setup Pages 1.
E2 Setup Pages 2.
E3 Setup Pages 3.
E4 Setup Pages 4.
E5 Setup Pages 5.
E6 Setup Pages 6.
E7 Setup Pages 7.
E8 Setup Pages 8.
E9 Setup Pages 9.
EA Setup Pages A
EB Setup Pages B.
EC Setup Pages C.
ED Setup Pages D.
EE Setup Pages E.
EF Setup Pages F.
FF Boot.

PhoenixBIOS 4.0 Release 6
02 Verify Real Mode.
03 Disable Non-Maskable Interrupt (NMI).
04 Get CPU type.
06 Initialize system hardware.
08 Initialize chipset with initial POST values.
09 Set IN POST flag.
0A Initialize CPU registers.
0B Enable CPU cache.
0C Initialize caches to initial POST values.
0E Initialize I/O component.
8F Determine number of ATA drives (optional).
90 Initialize hard-disk controllers.
91 Initialize local-bus hard-disk controllers.
92 Jump to UserPatch2.
93 Build MPTABLE for multi-processor boards.
95 Install CD ROM for boot.
96 Clear huge ES segment register.
97 Fixup Multi Processor table.
98 Search for option ROMs. One long, two short beeps on checksum failure.
99 Check for SMART Drive (optional).
9A Shadow option ROMs.
9C Set up Power Management.
9D Initialize security engine (optional).
9E Enable hardware interrupts.
9F Determine number of ATA and SCSI drives.
A0 Set time of day.
A2 Check key lock.
A4 Initialize Typematic rate.
A8 Erase F2 prompt.
AA Scan for F2 key stroke.
AE Clear Boot flag.
B0 Check for errors.
B2 POST done - prepare to boot operating system.
B4 One short beep before boot.
B5 Terminate QuietBoot (optional).
B6 Check password (optional).
B9 Prepare Boot.
BA Initialize DMI parameters.
BB Initialize PnP Option ROMs.
BC Clear parity checkers.
BD Display MultiBoot menu.
BE Clear screen (optional).
BF Check virus and backup reminders.
C0 Try to boot with INT 19.
C1 Initialize POST Error Manager (PEM).
C2 Initialize error logging.
C3 Initialize error display function.
C4 Initialize system error handler.
C5 PnPnd dual CMOS (optional).
C6 Initialize notebook docking (optional).
C7 Initialize notebook docking late.
C8 Force check (optional).
C9 Extended checksum (optional).
D2 Unknown interrupt.
E0 Initialize the chipset.
E1 Initialize the bridge.
E2 Initialize the CPU.
E3 Initialize system timer.
E4 Initialize system I/O.
E5 Check force recovery boot.
E6 Checksum BIOS ROM.
E7 Go to BIOS.
E8 Set Huge Segment.
E9 Initialize Multi Processor.
EA Initialize OEM special code.
EB Initialize PIC and DMA.
EC Initialize Memory type.
ED Initialize Memory size.
EE Shadow Boot Block.
EF System memory test.
F0 Initialize interrupt vectors.
F1 Initialize Run Time Clock.
F2 Initialize video.
F3 Initialize System Management Mode.
F4 Output one beep before boot.
F5 Boot to Mini DOS.
F6 Clear Huge Segment.
F7 Boot to Full DOS.
Скачать описание точек пост-кодов можно тут 321 килобайт RAR-архив
Подробнее ознакомиться с материалом и платами тестирования можно тут
Восстанавливаем данные на носителях.
   Возникают проблемы с жесткими дисками, флэшками и прочими носителями. Вроде все было нормально, но вот флэшку выдернули и снова вставляем а там уже нет ни единого файла, такое бывает, бывает не только с флэшками, но и со съемными жесткими дисками и просто с жесткими дисками, после внезапного отключения компьютера (свет отключили), это все означает - потеря файловой системы...
   Данные конечно жаль.. Но жизнь продолжается, новые данные запишите, отформатируете, конечно, флэшку или жесткий диск, и снова в бой! Но что делать, если данные которые Вы потеряли, очень важны? Что делать, если их просто уже не возможно снова гдето взять? Есть ответ на этот вопрос, есть и выход в такой, казалось бы безвыходной ситуации, и ответ этот - Get Data Back for FAT&NTFS качать и читать делее тут